ScienceDaily Physics News Feeds

  • Tiny cloud of atoms can be turned from a heat engine into a cooler
    on May 13, 2021 at 4:40 pm

    The demonstration that a tiny cloud of atoms can be turned from a heat engine into a cooler by cranking up the interactions between the particles provides both deep fundamental insight and a possible template for more efficient thermoelectric devices.

  • New evidence for electron’s dual nature found in a quantum spin liquid
    on May 13, 2021 at 4:39 pm

    New experiments provide evidence for a decades-old theory that, in the quantum regime, an electron behaves as if it is made of two particles: one particle that carries its negative charge and the other that gives it a magnet-like property called spin. The team detected evidence for this theory in materials called quantum spin liquids.

  • Quantum machine learning hits a limit
    on May 13, 2021 at 2:00 pm

    A black hole permanently scrambles information that can’t be recovered with any quantum machine learning algorithm, shedding new light on the classic Hayden-Preskill thought experiment.

  • New atomically precise graphene nanoribbon heterojunction sensor developed
    on May 12, 2021 at 3:56 pm

    A team of physicists and chemists has developed a highly sensitive sensor, which was made possible by a new heterostructure consisting of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons.

  • Brand new physics of superconducting metals refuted by physicists
    on May 12, 2021 at 12:34 pm

    Scientists have demonstrated that other physicists’ recent ‘discovery’ of the field effect in superconductors is nothing but hot electrons after all. A team of scientists have found new and compelling evidence that the observation of the field effect in superconducting metals by another group can be explained by a simple mechanism involving the injection of the electrons, without the need for novel physics.

  • How to thermally cloak an object
    on May 12, 2021 at 12:11 am

    Can you feel the heat? To a thermal camera, which measures infrared radiation, the heat that we can feel is visible, like the heat of a traveler in an airport with a fever or the cold of a leaky window or door in the winter. Researchers report a theoretical way of mimicking thermal objects or making objects invisible to thermal measurements.

  • Engine converts random jiggling of microscopic particle into stored energy
    on May 11, 2021 at 8:07 pm

    Researchers have designed a remarkably fast engine that taps into a new kind of fuel — information. This engine converts the random jiggling of a microscopic particle into stored energy. It could lead to significant advances in the speed and cost of computers and bio-nanotechnologies.

  • Electromagnetic levitation whips nanomaterials into shape
    on May 11, 2021 at 4:36 pm

    To deliver reliable mechanical and electric properties, nanomaterials must have consistent, predictable shapes and surfaces, as well as scalable production techniques. Engineers are solving this problem by vaporizing metals within a magnetic field to direct the reassembly of metal atoms into predictable shapes.

  • Quantum mechanics paves the way for more stable organic solar cells
    on May 11, 2021 at 4:35 pm

    Quantum mechanics can be used to create more stable and more easily produced organic solar cells.

  • Low temperature physics gives insight into turbulence
    on May 11, 2021 at 12:11 pm

    A novel technique for studying vortices in quantum fluids has been developed by physicists. Turbulence in quantum systems, for example in superfluid helium 4, takes place on microscopic scales, and so far scientists have not had tools with sufficient precision to probe eddies this small. But now the team, working at temperature of a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, has harnessed nanoscience to allow the detection of single quantum vortices.

  • ‘Flipping’ optical wavefront eliminates distortions in multimode fibers
    on May 10, 2021 at 8:15 pm

    Researchers have devised a novel technique to ‘flip’ the optical wavefront of an image for both polarizations simultaneously, so that it can be transmitted through a multimode fiber without distortion.

  • Light emitters for quantum circuits
    on May 10, 2021 at 2:44 pm

    The promise of a quantum internet depends on the complexities of harnessing light to transmit quantum information over fiber optic networks. A potential step forward was reported today by researchers who developed integrated chips that can generate light particles on demand and without the need for extreme refrigeration.

  • THz emission spectroscopy reveals optical response of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells
    on May 10, 2021 at 2:43 pm

    An international team of researchers came closer to unraveling the complicated optical response of wide-bandgap semiconductor multiple quantum wells and how atomic-scale lattice vibration can generate free space terahertz emission. Their work provides a significant push towards the application of laser terahertz emission microscopes to nano-seismology of wide-bandgap quantum devices.

  • Intersection of 2D materials results in entirely New materials
    on May 10, 2021 at 12:58 pm

    Physics researchers discover that assembling 2D materials into a 3D arrangement does not just result in ‘thicker’ 2D materials but instead produces entirely new materials. The nanomesh technologically is simple to produce and offers tunable material properties to meet the demands of future applications. The team’s next goal is to use the nanomesh on Silicon (Si) waveguides to develop quantum optical communications.

  • Why hotter clocks are more accurate
    on May 7, 2021 at 6:05 pm

    A new experiment shows that the more energy consumed by a clock, the more accurate its timekeeping. This is the first time that a measurement has been made of the entropy — or heat loss — generated by a minimal clock tens of nanometers thick and 1.5 millimeters long. Understanding the thermodynamic cost involved in timekeeping is a central step along the way in the development of future technologies, as systems approach the quantum realm.

  • Evading the uncertainty principle in quantum physics
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:21 pm

    In quantum mechanics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle dictates that the position and speed of an object cannot both be known fully precisely at the same time. Researchers now show that two vibrating drumheads, the size of a human hair, can be prepared in a quantum state which evades the uncertainty principle.

  • Homing in on the smallest possible laser
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:21 pm

    Physicists have succeeded in generating an unusual quantum state in charge carrier complexes that are closely linked to light particles and located in ultrathin semiconductor sheets. This process produces light similar to that of a laser. The phenomenon could be used to create the smallest possible solid-state lasers.

  • Quantum drum duet measured
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:20 pm

    Like conductors of a spooky symphony, researchers have ‘entangled’ two small mechanical drums and precisely measured their linked quantum properties. Entangled pairs like this might someday perform computations and transmit data in large-scale quantum networks.

  • Unusual semimetal shows evidence of unique surface conduction states
    on May 6, 2021 at 2:55 pm

    Scientists experimentally verify the existence of exotic surface conduction states in topological semimetals (TSMs), materials that lie at the boundary between conductors and insulators, by performing voltage scans of these surface states on a thin film sample of a TSM. The findings can pave the way for future study and exploitation of such conduction states in realizing novel, quantum transport phenomena.

  • Microalgae biofuels: Changing carbohydrates into lipids
    on May 6, 2021 at 2:54 pm

    Engineers have developed a technique to repartition carbon resources from carbohydrates to lipids in microalgae. It is hoped that this method can be applied to biofuel production.

  • Laser pulses with record-breaking intensity
    on May 6, 2021 at 2:54 pm

    Researchers have demonstrated a record-high laser pulse intensity of over 1023 W/cm2 using a petawatt laser. It took more than a decade to reach this laser intensity. These ultrahigh intensity light pulses will enable exploration of complex interactions between light and matter in ways not possible before.

  • Supersymmetry-inspired microlaser arrays pave way for powering chip-sized optical systems
    on May 5, 2021 at 6:55 pm

    Ring microlasers are eyed as potential light sources for photonic applications, but they first must be made more powerful. Combining multiple microlasers into an array solves only half of the problem, as this adds noisy ‘modes’ to the resulting laser light. Now, thanks to the math behind supersymmetry theory, engineers have achieved single-mode lasing from such an array. By calculating the necessary properties for ‘superpartner’ arrays, they can cancel out the unwanted extra modes.

  • Repurposing tabletop sensors to search for dark matter
    on May 5, 2021 at 6:55 pm

    Researchers across the dark matter community that have begun to wonder if they are looking for the right type of dark matter. They have proposed a new way to look for the particles that might make up dark matter by repurposing existing tabletop sensor technology.

  • Detailed look at how charge transfer distorts a molecule’s structure
    on May 5, 2021 at 1:44 pm

    When light hits certain molecules, it dislodges electrons that then move from one location to another, creating areas of positive and negative charge. This ‘charge transfer’ is highly important in many areas of chemistry, photosynthesis and semiconductor devices and solar cells. A new study reveals how a molecule’s structure changes as charge is redistributed, with some chemical bonds getting longer and some shorter, before finally relaxing back into its original state.

  • Thin, large-area device converts infrared light into images
    on May 5, 2021 at 1:44 pm

    An infrared imager developed by engineers could be used to see through smog and fog; easily locate blood vessels on a patient; and see through silicon wafers to inspect the quality of electronic boards. It is also slim, compact and less costly to fabricate than similar technologies.

  • New algorithm uses a hologram to control trapped ions
    on May 5, 2021 at 11:50 am

    Researchers have discovered the most precise way to control individual ions using holographic optical engineering technology.

  • New application of AI just removed one of the biggest roadblocks in astrophysics
    on May 4, 2021 at 11:16 pm

    Using neural networks, researchers simulated vast, complex universes in a fraction of the time it takes with conventional methods.

  • Complex shapes of photons to boost future quantum technologies
    on May 4, 2021 at 3:25 pm

    Researchers have demonstrated how two interfering photons can bunch into various shapes. These complex shapes are beneficial for quantum technologies, such as performing fast photonic quantum computations and safe data transfer. The method opens new possibilities also for creating enhanced measurement and sensing techniques.

  • A new way to make AR/VR glasses
    on May 3, 2021 at 1:59 pm

    Researchers have imprinted freeform optics with a nanophotonic optical element called a metasurface to create AR/VR glasses that are not only compact and easy to wear, but deliver high quality optics without looking like ‘bug eyes.’

  • A physics perspective on wound healing
    on May 3, 2021 at 1:35 pm

    In material physics understanding how systems interact across the interfaces separating them is of central interest. But can physical models clarify similar concepts in living systems, such as cells? Physicists used the framework of disordered elastic systems to study the process of wound healing – the proliferation of cell fronts which eventually join to close a lesion. Their study identified the scales of the dominant interactions between cells which determine this process.

  • Neural nets used to rethink material design
    on April 30, 2021 at 8:58 pm

    Engineers are using neural networks to accelerate predictions of how the microstructures of materials evolve. The machine-learning technique should speed the development of novel materials.

  • Milestone for next-gen acceleration experiment
    on April 30, 2021 at 4:03 pm

    The future of particle acceleration has begun. Awake is a promising concept for a completely new method with which particles can be accelerated even over short distances. The basis for this is a plasma wave that accelerates electrons and thus brings them to high energies. A team now reports a breakthrough in this context. For the first time, they were able to precisely time the production of the proton microbunches that drive the wave in the plasma. This fulfills an important prerequisite for using the Awake technology for collision experiments.

  • Researchers analyzed circulating currents inside gold nanoparticles
    on April 30, 2021 at 4:03 pm

    Researchers have developed a method that allows for simulation and visualization of magnetic-field-induced electron currents inside gold nanoparticles. The method facilitates accurate analysis of magnetic field effects inside complex nanostructures in nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and establishes quantitative criteria for aromaticity of nanoparticles.

  • Defect that limits hybrid perovskites solar-cell performance identified
    on April 30, 2021 at 1:31 pm

    Researchers have uncovered a major cause of limitations to efficiency in a new generation of solar cells.

  • Machine learning algorithm helps unravel the physics underlying quantum systems
    on April 29, 2021 at 3:24 pm

    Scientists have developed an algorithm that provides valuable insights into the physics underlying quantum systems – paving the way for significant advances in quantum computation and sensing, and potentially turning a new page in scientific investigation.

  • Blueprint for a robust quantum future
    on April 29, 2021 at 2:49 pm

    Researchers have established an invaluable resource for those looking to discover new quantum systems.

  • Single photon switch advance
    on April 28, 2021 at 8:25 pm

    The ability to turn on and off a physical process with just one photon is a fundamental building block for quantum photonic technologies. Realizing this in a chip-scale architecture is important for scalability. Researchers have demonstrated the use of ‘Rydberg states’ in solid state materials (previously shown in cold atom gases) to enhance nonlinear optical interactions to unprecedented levels in solid state systems.

  • New computer model helps brings the sun into the laboratory
    on April 28, 2021 at 5:55 pm

    Every day, the sun ejects large amounts of a hot particle soup known as plasma toward Earth where it can disrupt telecommunications satellites and damage electrical grids. Now, scientists have made a discovery that could lead to better predictions of this space weather and help safeguard sensitive infrastructure.

  • Mapping the electronic states in an exotic superconductor
    on April 28, 2021 at 5:30 pm

    Scientists mapped the electronic states in an exotic superconductor. The maps point to the composition range necessary for topological superconductivity, a state that could enable more robust quantum computing.

  • Scientists harness molecules into single quantum state
    on April 28, 2021 at 3:37 pm

    Being able to build and control systems of quantum particles, which are among the smallest objects in the universe, is the key to developing quantum technology. That goal is now a step closer thanks to scientists who just figured out how to bring multiple molecules at once into a single quantum state — one of the most important goals in quantum physics.

  • A path to graphene topological qubits
    on April 28, 2021 at 3:37 pm

    Researchers demonstrate that magnetism and superconductivity can coexist in graphene, opening a pathway towards graphene-based topological qubits.

  • How acidic are atoms?
    on April 28, 2021 at 3:37 pm

    How acidic is a surface? Up until now, only average values could be determined. But in order to understand the chemical behavior of a surface, it is important to know how individual atoms in the surface might react. A new microscopy technique can now answer this question.

  • Researchers use a nanoscale synthetic antiferromagnet to toggle nonlinear spin dynamics
    on April 28, 2021 at 2:02 pm

    Researchers have used a nanoscale synthetic antiferromagnet to control the interaction between magnons — research that could lead to faster and more energy-efficient computers.

  • New AI tool calculates materials’ stress and strain based on photos
    on April 27, 2021 at 8:32 pm

    Researchers developed a machine-learning technique that uses an image to estimate the stresses and strains acting on a material. The advance could accelerate engineers’ design process by eliminating the need to solve complex equations.

  • Silicon could be a photonics game-changer
    on April 27, 2021 at 5:55 pm

    New research has shown that silicon could be one of the most powerful materials for photonic informational manipulation – opening up new possibilities for the production of lasers and displays.

  • New 2D superconductor forms at higher temperatures
    on April 27, 2021 at 3:37 pm

    Researchers have discovered a new way to generate 2D superconductivity at an interface of an insulating oxide material, at high transition temperatures.

  • Physicists net neutron star gold from measurement of lead
    on April 27, 2021 at 3:06 pm

    Nuclear physicists have made a new, highly accurate measurement of the thickness of the neutron ‘skin’ that encompasses the lead nucleus in experiments. The result, which revealed a neutron skin thickness of .28 millionths of a nanometer, has important implications for the structure and size of neutron stars.

  • New two-dimensional material
    on April 27, 2021 at 1:48 pm

    An international team has discovered a previously unknown two-dimensional material by using modern high-pressure technology. The new material, beryllonitrene, consists of regularly arranged nitrogen and beryllium atoms. It has an unusual electronic lattice structure that shows great potential for applications in quantum technology.

  • Plasma acceleration: It’s all in the mix
    on April 27, 2021 at 1:47 pm

    Scientists are celebrating not just one but two milestones in the development of innovative plasma accelerators. A group of scientists used their accelerator to test a technique that allows the energy distribution of the electron beams produced to be kept particularly narrow. They also used artificial intelligence to allow the accelerator to optimize its own operation.

  • Fooling fusion fuel: How to discipline unruly plasma
    on April 26, 2021 at 7:48 pm

    Scientists have developed a type of deception to calm unruly plasma and accelerate the harvesting on Earth of fusion energy.

  • From toxic ions to single-atom copper
    on April 24, 2021 at 1:07 am

    Researchers offer conclusive research for understanding how bacteria found in copper mines convert toxic copper ions to stable single-atom copper. Their research demonstrates how copper-resistant bacterium from a copper mine in Brazil convert copper sulfate ions into zero-valent metallic copper.

  • Simple robots, smart algorithms
    on April 24, 2021 at 1:07 am

    Inspired by a theoretical model of particles moving around on a chessboard, new robot swarm research shows that, as magnetic interactions increase, dispersed ‘dumb robots’ can abruptly gather in large, compact clusters to accomplish complex tasks. Researchers report that these ‘BOBbots’ (behaving, organizing, buzzing bots) are also capable of collectively clearing debris that is too heavy for one alone to move, thanks to a robust algorithm.

  • Quantum steering for more precise measurements
    on April 23, 2021 at 12:57 pm

    Quantum systems consisting of several particles can be used to measure magnetic or electric fields more precisely. A young physicist has now proposed a new scheme for such measurements that uses a particular kind of correlation between quantum particles.

  • Scientists uncover structure of light-driven enzyme with potential biofuel applications
    on April 22, 2021 at 7:04 pm

    Although many organisms capture and respond to sunlight, enzymes – proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions – are rarely driven by light. A new study captures the full cycle of complex structural changes in an enzyme called FAP as it transforms a fatty acid into alkanes or alkenes.

  • SMART breakthrough in materials discovery enables ‘twistronics’ for bulk systems
    on April 22, 2021 at 2:28 pm

    Researchers have discovered a new way to control light emission from materials. While recent discoveries focused on manipulation of atomically-thin 2D materials, the new breakthrough can be used to stack technologically-relevant 3D materials at a twist angle. The discovery can be significant for applications in medicine, environmental or information technologies.

  • The wave beneath their wings
    on April 21, 2021 at 8:00 pm

    It’s a common sight: pelicans gliding along the waves, right by the shore. These birds make this kind of surfing look effortless, but actually the physics involved that give them a big boost are not simple. Researchers have recently developed a theoretical model that describes how the ocean, the wind and the birds in flight interact.

  • Detailed look at intriguing property of chiral materials
    on April 21, 2021 at 8:00 pm

    A new study is advancing scientists’ understanding of magneto-chiral dichroism. The research focuses on light-matter interactions in chiral materials under a magnetic field.

  • Scientists capture image of an electron’s orbit within an exciton
    on April 21, 2021 at 7:12 pm

    Researchers have captured an image showing the internal orbits, or spatial distribution, of particles in an exciton – a goal that had eluded scientists for almost a century.

  • Combining light, superconductors could boost AI capabilities
    on April 20, 2021 at 5:10 pm

    As artificial intelligence has attracted interest, researchers are focused on understanding how the brain accomplishes cognition so they can construct systems with general intelligence comparable to humans’ intelligence. Researchers propose an approach to AI that focuses on integrating photonic components with superconducting electronics; using light for communication and complex electronic circuits for computation could enable artificial cognitive systems of scale and functionality beyond what can be achieved with either light or electronics alone.

  • Boosting fiber optics communications with advanced quantum-enhanced receiver
    on April 20, 2021 at 5:10 pm

    Fiber optic technology is the holy grail of high-speed, long-distance telecommunications. Still, with the continuing exponential growth of internet traffic, researchers are warning of a capacity crunch. Researchers show how quantum-enhanced receivers could play a critical role in addressing this challenge. The scientists developed a method to enhance receivers based on quantum physics properties to dramatically increase network performance while significantly reducing the error bit rate and energy consumption.